Increased Weight Reduces The Brain's Response To Tasty Food

Increased Weight Reduces The Brain's Response To Tasty Food.

Most males and females possibly find drinking a milkshake a pleasurable experience, sometimes extraordinarily so But apparently that's less apt to be the case among those who are overweight or obese.

Overeating, it seems, dims the neurological reply to the consumption of yummy foods such as milkshakes, a new study suggests pro extender manual yuen long. That retort is generated in the caudate nucleus of the brain, a region involved with reward.

Researchers using utilitarian magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) found that that overweight and obese people showed less activity in this brain zone when drinking a milkshake than did normal-weight people.

"The higher your BMI [body mass index], the shame your caudate response when you eat a milkshake," said study lead author Dana Small, an affiliate professor of psychiatry at Yale and an associate fellow at the university's John B. Pierce Laboratory.

The make happen was especially strong in adults who had a particular variant of the taqIA A1 gene, which has been linked to a heightened chance of obesity. In them the decreased brain response to the milkshake was very pronounced. About a third of Americans have the variant.

The findings were to have been presented earlier this week at an American College of Neuropsychopharmacology intersection in Miami.

Just what this says about why relations overeat or why dieters say it's so hard to by highly rewarding foods is not entirely clear. But the researchers have some theories.

When asked how pleasant they found the milkshake, overweight and obese participants in the study responded in ways that did not differ much from those of normal-weight participants, suggesting that the explication is not that obese people don't enjoy milkshakes any more or less.

And when they did brain scans in children at jeopardize for obesity because both parents were obese, the researchers found the opposite of what they found in overweight adults.

Children at jeopardy of obesity actually had an increased caudate response to milkshake consumption, compared with kids not considered at imperil for obesity because they had lean parents.

What that suggests, the researchers said, is that the caudate response decreases as a consequence of overeating through the lifespan.

"The decrease in caudate response doesn't precede weight gain, it follows it. That suggests the decreased caudate reaction is a consequence, rather than a cause, of overeating."

Studies in rats have had equivalent results, said Paul Kenny, an associate professor in the behavioral and molecular neuroscience lab at the Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Fla.

When rats were given access to immensely palatable, importantly rewarding food for extended periods, they became obese. The fatter they got, the more the effect in their brain reward centers decreased.

"Over time, the reward systems began to dull down. They were not functioning properly. We think something similar may be going on in humans."

"As you go through your existence and continue to eat these highly palatable foods, you are overstimulating your brain reward center. Over time, the organized whole fights back, and it tones itself down -- which is why the higher the BMI, the less motion you see in the reward area."

Among other things, the brain's caudate nucleus is involved with regulating impulsivity, which is tied up to self control, and addictive behaviors.

"The caudate is a region of the brain that receives dopamine. What this imagination response could mean is that overeating causes adaptations in the dopamine system, which could confer further danger of overeating."

The question for dieters, then, is whether the caudate response can be restored to normal if they lose weight. The researchers said they didn't certain but planned to test that.

Research in people with other addictions suggests that, over time, there may be some recurrence to normalcy in the brain's reward processing but perhaps never a accomplish return to where you started.

A second study to be presented at the meeting found that that the brains of obese people responded differently than the brains of ordinary weight people to anticipated food or monetary rewards and punishments.

It found that rotund individuals showed greater brain sensitivity to anticipated reward and less sensitivity to anticipated unresponsive consequences than normal-weight people. The study was done by researchers at the University of Kansas Medical Center.

Because the findings from both studies were to be presented at a medical meeting, they should be viewed as introductory until they are published in a peer-reviewed journal.

About 30 percent of the U.S. natives is classified as obese, and the medical consequences of that cost more than $100 billion annually, said Dr. Nora Volkow, governor of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse and an maven on the neurobiology of obesity.

One of the primary culprits behind obesity is the constant availability of "excessively productive food" that, when eaten often, may alter the brain's reward system.

"It's increasingly being recognized that the discernment itself plays a fundamental role in obesity and overeating" inches.

tag : brain caudate reward obese response obesity people weight overeating

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